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Asia is the most populous continent, with its 4.3 billion inhabitants accounting for 60% of the world population.

The world's two most populated countries alone, China and India, together constitute about 37% of the world's population.

Africa is the second most populated continent, with around 1 billion people, or 15% of the world's population.

Europe's 733 million people make up 12% of the world's population as of 2012, while the Latin American and Caribbean regions are home to around 600 million (9%).

Northern America, primarily consisting of the United States and Canada, has a population of around 352 million (5%), and Oceania, the least-populated region, has about 35 million inhabitants (0.5%).

Though it is not permanently inhabited by any fixed population, Antarctica has a small, fluctuating international population, based mainly in polar science stations.This population tends to rise in the summer months and decrease significantly in winter, as visiting researchers return to their home countries.date to the 17th century: William Petty in 1682 estimated world population at 320 million (modern estimates ranging close to twice this number); by the late 18th century, estimates ranged close to one billion (consistent with modern estimates).Even earlier, genetic evidence suggests humans may have gone through a population bottleneck of between 1,000 and 10,000 people about 70,000 BCE, according to the Toba catastrophe theory.By contrast, it is estimated that around 50–60 million people lived in the combined eastern and western Roman Empire in the 4th century CE.In the year 2 AD the population of Western Han was recorded as 57,671,400 individuals in 12,366,470 households, decreasing to 47,566,772 individuals in 9,348,227 households by 146 AD, towards the End of the Han Dynasty.